Samadhi Paada - Patanjali Yoga Sutras

अथ योगानुशासनम् ॥१॥
atha yoga-anuśāsanam ॥1॥

Yoga in the here and now: an introduction to the study and practice of yoga ||1||

योगश्चित्तवृत्तिनिरोधः ॥२॥
yogaś-citta-vr̥tti-nirodhaḥ ॥2॥

When you are in a state of yoga, all misconceptions (vrittis) that can exist in the mutable aspect of human beings (chitta) disappear. ||2||

तदा द्रष्टुः स्वरूपेऽवस्थानम् ॥३॥
tadā draṣṭuḥ svarūpe-'vasthānam ॥3॥

For finding our true self (drashtu) entails insight into our own nature. ||3||

वृत्ति सारूप्यमितरत्र ॥४॥
vr̥tti sārūpyam-itaratra ॥4॥

Lacking that, misconceptions (vritti) skew our perceptions. ||4||

वृत्तयः पञ्चतय्यः क्लिष्टाक्लिष्टाः ॥५॥
vr̥ttayaḥ pañcatayyaḥ kliṣṭākliṣṭāḥ ॥5॥

There are five types of misconceptions (vrittis), some of which are more agreeable than others: ||5||

प्रमाण विपर्यय विकल्प निद्रा स्मृतयः ॥६॥
pramāṇa viparyaya vikalpa nidrā smr̥tayaḥ ॥6॥

insight, error, imaginings, deep sleep, and recollections.

प्रत्यक्षानुमानाअगमाः प्रमाणानि ॥७॥
pratyakṣa-anumāna-āgamāḥ pramāṇāni ॥7॥

Insight arises from direct perception, conclusions, or learning that are based on reliable sources. ||7||

विपर्ययो मिथ्याज्ञानमतद्रूप प्रतिष्ठम् ॥८॥
viparyayo mithyā-jñānam-atadrūpa pratiṣṭham ॥8॥

Error arises from knowledge that is based on a false mental construct. ||8||

शब्दज्ञानानुपाती वस्तुशून्यो विकल्पः ॥९॥
śabda-jñāna-anupātī vastu-śūnyo vikalpaḥ ॥9॥

Imaginings are engendered by word knowledge without regard for what actually exists in the real world. ||9||

अभावप्रत्ययाअलम्बना तमोवृत्तिर्निद्र ॥१०॥
abhāva-pratyaya-ālambanā tamo-vr̥ttir-nidra ॥10॥

Deep sleep is the absence of all impressions resulting from opacity in that which is mutable in human beings (chitta). ||10||

अनुभूतविषयासंप्रमोषः स्मृतिः ॥११॥
anu-bhūta-viṣaya-asaṁpramoṣaḥ smr̥tiḥ ॥11॥

Recollections are engendered by the past, insofar as the relevant experience has not been eclipsed. ||11||

अभ्यासवैराग्याअभ्यां तन्निरोधः ॥१२॥
abhyāsa-vairāgya-ābhyāṁ tan-nirodhaḥ ॥12॥

The state of yoga is attained via a balance between assiduousness (abhyasa) and imperturbability (vairagya). ||12||

तत्र स्थितौ यत्नोऽभ्यासः ॥१३॥
tatra sthitau yatno-'bhyāsaḥ ॥13॥

Assiduousness means resolutely adhering to one’s practice of yoga. ||13||

स तु दीर्घकाल नैरन्तर्य सत्काराअदराअसेवितो दृढभूमिः ॥१४॥
sa tu dīrghakāla nairantarya satkāra-ādara-āsevito dr̥ḍhabhūmiḥ ॥14॥

Success can definitely be achieved via sound and continuous practice over an extended period of time, carried out in a serious and thoughtful manner. ||14||

दृष्टानुश्रविकविषयवितृष्णस्य वशीकारसंज्णा वैराग्यम् ॥१५॥
dr̥ṣṭa-anuśravika-viṣaya-vitr̥ṣṇasya vaśīkāra-saṁjṇā vairāgyam ॥15॥

Imperturbability results from a balance in the consciousness, and when the desire for all things that we see or have heard of is extinguished. ||15||

तत्परं पुरुषख्यातेः गुणवैतृष्ण्यम् ॥१६॥
tatparaṁ puruṣa-khyāteḥ guṇa-vaitr̥ṣṇyam ॥16॥

The highest state of imperturbability arises from the experience of the true self; in this state even the basic elements of nature lose their power over us. || 16||

वितर्कविचाराअनन्दास्मितारुपानुगमात्संप्रज्ञातः ॥१७॥
vitarka-vicāra-ānanda-asmitā-rupa-anugamāt-saṁprajñātaḥ ॥17॥

This absolute knowledge is engendered incrementally by divination, experience, joy, and ultimately the feeling of oneness. ||17||

विरामप्रत्ययाभ्यासपूर्वः संस्कारशेषोऽन्यः ॥१८॥
virāma-pratyaya-abhyāsa-pūrvaḥ saṁskāra-śeṣo-'nyaḥ ॥18॥

The other state of insight, which is based on persistent practice, arises when all perception has been extinguished and only non-manifest impressions remain. ||18||

भवप्रत्ययो विदेहप्रकृतिलयानम् ॥१९॥
bhava-pratyayo videha-prakr̥ti-layānam ॥19॥

Some people are born with true insight, whereas others attain it via a divine body or oneness with nature. ||19||

श्रद्धावीर्यस्मृति समाधिप्रज्ञापूर्वक इतरेषाम् ॥२०॥
śraddhā-vīrya-smr̥ti samādhi-prajñā-pūrvaka itareṣām ॥20॥

And then there are some for whom trust, determination, memory and divination lay the groundwork for insight. ||20||

तीव्रसंवेगानामासन्नः ॥२१॥
tīvra-saṁvegānām-āsannaḥ ॥21॥

The goal is achieved through intensive practice. ||21||

मृदुमध्याधिमात्रत्वात्ततोऽपि विशेषः ॥२२॥
mr̥du-madhya-adhimātratvāt-tato'pi viśeṣaḥ ॥22॥

This practice can be light, moderate or intensive. ||22||

ईश्वरप्रणिधानाद्वा ॥२३॥
īśvara-praṇidhānād-vā ॥23॥

The goal can also be attained via submission to the concept of an ideal being (ishvara). ||24||

क्लेश कर्म विपाकाअशयैःअपरामृष्टः पुरुषविशेष ईश्वरः ॥२४॥
kleśa karma vipāka-āśayaiḥ-aparāmr̥ṣṭaḥ puruṣa-viśeṣa īśvaraḥ ॥24॥

Ishavara is a special being that is unaffected by the obstacles of the spiritual aspirant (klesha), specific actions and consequences (karma), or recollections or desires. ||24||

तत्र निरतिशयं सर्वज्ञबीजम् ॥२५॥
tatra niratiśayaṁ sarvajña-bījam ॥25॥

Ishavara is unmatched and is the source of all knowledge. ||25||

स एष पूर्वेषामपिगुरुः कालेनानवच्छेदात् ॥२६॥
sa eṣa pūrveṣām-api-guruḥ kālena-anavacchedāt ॥26॥

Ishvara is each and every one, and is even the teacher of the first ones; he is unaffected by time ||26||

तस्य वाचकः प्रणवः ॥२७॥
tasya vācakaḥ praṇavaḥ ॥27॥

OM is a symbol for ishvara. ||27||

तज्जपः तदर्थभावनम् ॥२८॥
taj-japaḥ tad-artha-bhāvanam ॥28॥

Repetition of OM (with this meaning) leads to contemplation. ||28||

ततः प्रत्यक्चेतनाधिगमोऽप्यन्तरायाभवश्च ॥२९॥
tataḥ pratyak-cetana-adhigamo-'py-antarāya-abhavaś-ca ॥29॥

Through this practice, the immutable self is revealed and all obstacles (antaraya) are removed. ||29||

व्याधि स्त्यान संशय प्रमादाअलस्याविरति भ्रान्तिदर्शनालब्धभूमिकत्वानवस्थितत्वानि चित्तविक्षेपाः ते अन्तरायाः ॥३०॥
vyādhi styāna saṁśaya pramāda-ālasya-avirati bhrāntidarśana-alabdha-bhūmikatva-anavasthitatvāni citta-vikṣepāḥ te antarāyāḥ ॥30॥

These obstacles (antaraya) (illness; inertia; doubt; neglect; sloth; desire; blindness; a lack of goals; irresoluteness) obscure that which is immutable in human beings (chitta). ||30||

दुःखदौर्मनस्याङ्गमेजयत्वश्वासप्रश्वासाः विक्षेप सहभुवः ॥३१॥
duḥkha-daurmanasya-aṅgamejayatva-śvāsapraśvāsāḥ vikṣepa sahabhuvaḥ ॥31॥

Suffering, depression, nervousness, and agitated breathing are signs of this lack of clarity. ||31||

तत्प्रतिषेधार्थमेकतत्त्वाभ्यासः ॥३२॥
tat-pratiṣedha-artham-eka-tattva-abhyāsaḥ ॥32॥

He who practices assiduously overcomes these obstacles. ||32||

मैत्री करुणा मुदितोपेक्षाणांसुखदुःख पुण्यापुण्यविषयाणां भावनातः चित्तप्रसादनम् ॥३३॥
maitrī karuṇā mudito-pekṣāṇāṁ-sukha-duḥkha puṇya-apuṇya-viṣayāṇāṁ bhāvanātaḥ citta-prasādanam ॥33॥

All that is mutable in human beings (chitta) is harmonized through the cultivation of love (maitri), helpfulness (karuna), conviviality (mudita) and imperturbability (upeksha) in situations that are happy, painful, successful or unfortunate. ||33||

प्रच्छर्दनविधारणाअभ्यां वा प्राणस्य ॥३४॥
pracchardana-vidhāraṇa-ābhyāṁ vā prāṇasya ॥34॥

The goal can be attained through breathing exercises involving holding your breath before exhaling. ||34||

विषयवती वा प्रवृत्तिरुत्पन्ना मनसः स्थिति निबन्धिनी ॥३५॥
viṣayavatī vā pravr̥tti-rutpannā manasaḥ sthiti nibandhinī ॥35॥

- Or by contemplating things and impressions, which promotes mental stability and consolidation ||35||

विशोका वा ज्योतिष्मती ॥३६॥
viśokā vā jyotiṣmatī ॥36॥

- Or by contemplating the inner light that is free of suffering. ||36||

वीतराग विषयम् वा चित्तम् ॥३७॥
vītarāga viṣayam vā cittam ॥37॥

- Or if what is mutable in human beings (chitta) is no longer the handmaiden of desire. ||37||

स्वप्ननिद्रा ज्ञानाअलम्बनम् वा ॥३८॥
svapna-nidrā jñāna-ālambanam vā ॥38॥

- Or through knowledge that is derived from a nocturnal dream. ||38||

यथाअभिमतध्यानाद्वा ॥३९॥
yathā-abhimata-dhyānād-vā ॥39॥

- Or through contemplation (dhyana) of love. ||39||

परमाणु परममहत्त्वान्तोऽस्य वशीकारः ॥४०॥
paramāṇu parama-mahattva-anto-'sya vaśīkāraḥ ॥40॥

A person who attains this goal has mastery over everything, from the smallest atom to the entire universe. ||40||

क्षीणवृत्तेरभिजातस्येव मणेर्ग्रहीतृग्रहणग्राह्येषु तत्स्थतदञ्जनता समापत्तिः ॥४१॥
kṣīṇa-vr̥tter-abhijātasy-eva maṇer-grahītr̥-grahaṇa-grāhyeṣu tatstha-tadañjanatā samāpattiḥ ॥41॥

Once the misconceptions (vritti) have been minimized, everything that is mutable in human beings (chitta) becomes as clear as a diamond, and perceptions, the perceived, and perceiver are melded with each other. - One builds on and colors the other. This is enlightenment (samapatti). ||41||

तत्र शब्दार्थज्ञानविकल्पैः संकीर्णा सवितर्का समापत्तिः ॥४२॥
tatra śabdārtha-jñāna-vikalpaiḥ saṁkīrṇā savitarkā samāpattiḥ ॥42॥

In conjunction with word and object knowledge, or imagination, this state is savitarka samapatti. ||42||

स्मृतिपरिशुद्धौ स्वरूपशून्येवार्थमात्रनिर्भासा निर्वितर्का ॥४३॥
smr̥ti-pariśuddhau svarūpa-śūnyeva-arthamātra-nirbhāsā nirvitarkā ॥43॥

Once all previous impressions (smriti) have been purged and one’s own nature is clearly perceptible, then only the object of contemplation emanates light. This is nirvitarka samapatti. ||43||

एतयैव सविचारा निर्विचारा च सूक्ष्मविषय व्याख्याता ॥४४॥
etayaiva savicārā nirvicārā ca sūkṣma-viṣaya vyākhyātā ॥44॥

If the object of concentration is of a subtle nature, these two described states are known as savichraara and nirvichara samapatti. ||44||

सूक्ष्मविषयत्वम्चालिण्ग पर्यवसानम् ॥४५॥
sūkṣma-viṣayatvam-ca-aliṇga paryavasānam ॥45॥

An object can be subtle to the point of indefinability. ||46||

ता एव सबीजस्समाधिः ॥४६॥
tā eva sabījas-samādhiḥ ॥46॥

All of these states of consciousness are called sabija samadhi. ||46||

निर्विचारवैशारद्येऽध्यात्मप्रसादः ॥४७॥
nirvicāra-vaiśāradye-'dhyātma-prasādaḥ ॥47॥

If you regularly experience the clearest of the four aforementioned states known as nirvichara samapatti, then you are about to experience a state of absolute clarity. ||47||

ऋतंभरा तत्र प्रज्ञा ॥४८॥
r̥taṁbharā tatra prajñā ॥48॥

- Then consciousness will be filled with truth. ||48||

श्रुतानुमानप्रज्ञाअभ्यामन्यविषया विशेषार्थत्वात् ॥४९॥
śruta-anumāna-prajñā-abhyām-anya-viṣayā viśeṣa-arthatvāt ॥49॥

Consciousness is characterized by a special relationship to the object. This relationship exceeds the bounds of knowledge that is received and followed. ||49||

तज्जस्संस्कारोऽन्यसंस्कार प्रतिबन्धी ॥५०॥
tajjas-saṁskāro-'nya-saṁskāra pratibandhī ॥50॥

This experience gives rise to an impression (samskara) that supplants other impressions (samskara). ||50||

तस्यापि निरोधे सर्वनिरोधान्निर्बीजः समाधिः ॥५१॥
tasyāpi nirodhe sarva-nirodhān-nirbījaḥ samādhiḥ ॥51॥

Nirbiija samadhi is attained once even these impressions have become tranquil and when everything has become tranquil. ||51||